Crime reconstruction or crime scene reconstruction is the forensic science discipline in which one gains "explicit knowledge of the series of events that surround the commission of a crime using deductive and inductive reasoning, physical evidence, scientific methods, and their interrelationships". Gardner and Bevel explain that crime scene reconstruction "involves evaluating the context of a scene and the physical evidence found there in an effort to identify what occurred and in what order it occurred." Chisum and Turvey explain that "[h]olistic crime reconstruction is the development of actions and circumstances based on the system of evidence discovered and examined in relation to a particular crime. In this philosophy, all elements of evidence that come to light in a given case are treated as interdependent; the significance of each piece, each action, and each event falls and rises on the backs of the others.
Forensic ballistics is the examination of evidence relating to firearms at a crime scene, including the effects and behavior of projectiles and explosive devices. A forensic ballistics expert matches bullets, fragments, and other evidence with the weapons of alleged suspects or others involved in a case. Experts may be asked to explain their findings to a jury during criminal or civil trials.
Our forensic skills are regularly called on in cases relating to signature forgery where there is suspected crime, often involving wills and cheque books and where large sums of money may have been criminally obtained through signature forgery, often by someone known to the victim.
Although our signatures are not completely uniform, using microscopes and other forensic and analytical techniques allows us to clearly distinguish between variations that we would expect to see in genuine signatures from differences that would identify a forgery. We are regularly called on to provide such analysis and produce this evidence in a court of law.
The majority of cells making up the human body are diploid cells carrying identical DNA, with the exception of haploid gametes (egg and sperm) and red blood cells (which have no nucleus). Several types of biological evidence are commonly used in forensic science for the purpose of DNA analysis, including blood, saliva, semen, skin, urine and hair, though some are more useful than others. The use of biological evidence in DNA and genetic analysis varies, with areas of study including blood typing, gender determination based on chromosome analysis (karyotyping), DNA profiling and, more recently, forensic DNA phenotyping. Since the advent of DNA profiling in the 1980s, it has been successfully utilised in criminal cases, disaster victim identification and paternity testing to name a few. However despite their merits, DNA fingerprints are not ideally used as the sole piece of evidence in a case, and in certain countries, such as the United Kingdom, DNA fingerprints must be presented in conjunction with other evidence.